On July 2, 1972, the two countries reached an agreement. The main clauses of the Simla agreement are the most important: at the end of this historic summit, India and Pakistan signed the Lahore Declaration, a bilateral agreement and a governance treaty that was to be ratified by the parliaments of both nations in the same year. As mentioned 27 years earlier in the Simla Agreement, the Lahore Declaration notably confirmed the need to resolve the Kashmir issue bilaterally. In 2001, then-Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf visited India on 14 and 16 July for a historic two-day summit in Agra at the invitation of Prime Minister Vajpaye. However, the talks failed and no text of agreement could be found. In addition to the withdrawal of troops and the return of prisoners from the 1971 war, the Simla Agreement was a model for India and Pakistan to maintain friendly and neighbourhood relations. As part of the agreement, the two warring countries promised to renounce conflicts and confrontations and strive for peace, friendship and cooperation. The international and regional context after 1971 had made the realization of some kind of agreement an important political objective for Gandhi and his national security team. After a successful war that liberated Bangladesh, politicians tried to continue to submit India`s status by showing a credible attempt at peace. Of course, India`s image had to be balanced by concrete results. The most desirable outcome would have been a final resolution in Kashmir, which bypasses the de facto position administered by both sides. The evidence is that policymakers have attempted to address some of the deep roots of the Indo-Pakistani conflict in Kashmir, seen as a direct manifestation of Pakistan`s national identity and not as a normal territorial impasse between states. P.N.
Haksar, Gandhi`s senior foreign policy adviser, later wrote that India`s approach was based on « the realization that Pakistan continues to have an unresolved crisis of its national identity. » 1971 paved the way for an alternative future for Pakistan. The agreement emphasizes respect for the sovereignty, territorial integrity, political independence and unity of the other. It also mentions non-interference in the internal affairs of the other and hostile propaganda. The agreement was agreed upon and signed after the 1971 Indo-Pak War, after which East Pakistan was liberated, leading to the formation of Bangladesh. In the hope of saving an agreement, Bhutto called Gandhi directly. During the climate meeting, Gandhi stressed the main advantage of the Indian proposal in Kashmir – neither side was forced to physically abandon the territory or exchange populations. With « obvious feeling and sincerity, » Bhutto acknowledged that India`s proposal was the only possible one, but that a legally binding commitment would significantly weaken its domestic political position and strengthen the military establishment.