Some levels of government have taken steps to put an end to abusive project work agreements. President Bush signed an executive order prohibiting federal authorities and other agencies that receive federal aid for construction projects from using LTAs. (Click here to see the executive order.) Montana and Utah have passed similar laws prohibiting government-imposed project work contracts. The agreements have been used in the United States since the 1930s and were first used in the 1980s for publicly funded projects. In these cases, the public authorities have made the signing of ATPs a prerequisite for working on taxpayer-funded projects. This type of ALP, known as a government-mandated ALP, is different from a PLA that is voluntarily carried out by public or private works contractors – as NNRA allows – and a PLA that has been mandated by a private agency for a privately funded construction project. Executive orders adopted since 1992 have had an impact on the use of mandatory PLAs for federal construction projects, and the last order issued by President Barack Obama in February 2009 encourages their use by federal authorities. The use of PLA is rejected by a number of groups that claim that the agreements discriminate 30/10 contractors and do not improve efficiency or reduce the costs of construction projects. THE PTPA studies have mixed results, with some studies concluding that PTPAs have a positive effect, while others find that agreements can increase costs and have a negative impact on contractors and non-unionized workers. Currently, Wisconsin government units may require contractors to sign a PLA to work on taxpayer-funded construction projects. PAs can intervene in existing union collective agreements and unfairly discourage competition between non-union contractors and their workers.
A Laboratory Project Agreement (PLA), also known as the Community Workforce Agreement, is a pre-employment collective agreement with one or more labour organizations that sets the terms and conditions for a given construction project.  Before workers are hired for the project, construction unions have the right to negotiate, determine wage rates and benefits for all workers working on the project concerned, and approve the provisions of the agreement.   The terms of the agreement apply to all contractors and subcontractors who offer success for the project and replace all existing collective agreements.  PLAs are used for both public and private projects and their specific provisions can be adapted by the signatory parties to the needs of a given project.  The agreement may contain provisions to prevent strikes, lockouts or other work stoppages during the duration of the project.  As a general rule, TTPs require that employees recruited for the project be returned to union rental premises, that self-employed workers in trade unions pay trade union rights for the duration of the project, and that the contractor comply with union rules on pensions, working conditions and dispute resolution.  On February 17, 2001, President George W. Bush signed Executive Order 13202, « Preservation of Open Competition and Government Neutrality Government Contractors` Labor Relations on Federal and Federally Funded Construction Projects, » which prohibits the use of PLA for construction projects with federal funds.  In that decision, it was said that federally funded construction projects could not impose project work contracts.  In practical terms, the decision specifies that neither the federal government nor a federal aid agency can compel or prohibit construction contractors from signing union contracts as a precondition for carrying out work on federally funded construction projects.  The contract allowed all previously agreed-upon LASs to proceed and did not result in projects that did not receive federal funding.  The ordinance